• Seventh Grade Standards
     
    READING

    1.0. Word Analysis, Fluency, and Systematic Vocabulary Development

    Students use their knowledge of word origins and word relationships, as well as historical and literary context clues, to determine the meaning of specialized vocabulary and to understand the precise meaning of grade-level-appropriate words.
    Vocabulary and Concept Development
    1.1 Identify idioms, analogies, metaphors, and similes in prose and poetry.
    1.2 Use knowledge of Greek, Latin, and Anglo-Saxon roots and affixes to understand
    content-area vocabulary.
    1.3 Clarify word meanings through the use of definition, example, restatement, or contrast.

    2.0 Reading Comprehension (Focus on Informational Materials)

    Students read and understand grade-level-appropriate material. They describe and connect the essential ideas, arguments, and perspectives of the text by using their knowledge of text structure, organization, and purpose. The selections in Recommended Readings in Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Eight illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students. In addition, by grade eight, students read one million words annually on their own, including a good representation of grade-level-appropriate narrative and expository text (e.g., classic and contemporary literature, magazines, newspapers, online information). In grade seven, students make substantial progress toward this goal. Structural Features of Informational Materials

    2.1 Understand and analyze the differences in structure and purpose between various categories of informational materials (e.g., textbooks, newspapers, instructional manuals, signs).
    2.2 Locate information by using a variety of consumer, workplace, and public documents.
    2.3 Analyze text that uses the cause-and-effect organizational pattern..43

    Reading GRADE SEVEN

    Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text
    2.4 Identify and trace the development of an author’s argument, point of view, or perspective in text.
    2.5 Understand and explain the use of a simple mechanical device by following technical directions.
    Expository Critique
    2.6 Assess the adequacy, accuracy, and appropriateness of the author’s evidence to support claims and assertions, noting instances of bias and stereotyping.

    3.0 Literary Response and Analysis

    Students read and respond to historically or culturally significant works of literature that reflect and enhance their studies of history and social science. They clarify the ideas and connect them to other literary works. The selections in Recommended Readings in Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Eight illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students.
    Structural Features of Literature
    3.1 Articulate the expressed purposes and characteristics of different forms of prose (e.g., short story, novel, novella, essay).
    Narrative Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text
    3.2 Identify events that advance the plot and determine how each event explains past or present action(s) or foreshadows future action(s).
    3.3 Analyze characterization as delineated through a character’s thoughts, words, speech patterns, and actions; the narrator’s description; and the thoughts, words, and actions of other characters.
    3.4 Identify and analyze recurring themes across works (e.g., the value of bravery, loyalty, and friendship; the effects of loneliness).
    3.5 Contrast points of view (e.g., first and third person, limited and omniscient, subjective and objective) in narrative text and explain how they affect the overall theme of the work.

    Literary Criticism

    GRADE SEVEN Writing

    3.6 Analyze a range of responses to a literary work and determine the extent to which the literary elements in the work shaped those responses..44

    WRITING

    1.0. Writing Strategies

    Students write clear, coherent, and focused essays. The writing exhibits students’ awareness of the audience and purpose. Essays contain formal introductions, supporting evidence, and conclusions. Students progress through the stages of the writing process as needed.

    Organization and Focus

    1.1 Create an organizational structure that balances all aspects of the composition and uses effective transitions between sentences to unify important ideas.
    1.2 Support all statements and claims with anecdotes, descriptions, facts and statistics, and specific examples.
    1.3 Use strategies of note taking, outlining, and summarizing to impose structure on composition drafts.

    Research and Technology

    Writing GRADE SEVEN

    1.4 Identify topics; ask and evaluate questions; and develop ideas leading to inquiry, investigation, and research.
    1.5 Give credit for both quoted and paraphrased information in a bibliography by using a consistent and sanctioned format and methodology for citations.
    1.6 Create documents by using word-processing skills and publishing programs; develop simple databases and spreadsheets to manage information and prepare reports.
    Evaluation and Revision
    1.7 Revise writing to improve organization and word choice after checking the logic of the ideas and the precision of the vocabulary..45

    2.0 Writing Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics)

    Students write narrative, expository, persuasive, and descriptive texts of at least 500 to 700 words in each genre. The writing demonstrates a command of standard American English and the research, organizational, and drafting strategies outlined in Writing Standard 1.0.
    Using the writing strategies of grade seven outlined in Writing Standard 1.0, students:
    2.1 Write fictional or autobiographical narratives:
    a. Develop a standard plot line (having a beginning, conflict, rising action, climax, and denouement) and point of view.
    b. Develop complex major and minor characters and a definite setting.
    c. Use a range of appropriate strategies (e.g., dialogue; suspense; naming of specific narrative action, including movement, gestures, and expressions).
    2.2 Write responses to literature: a. Develop interpretations exhibiting careful reading, understanding, and insight.
    b. Organize interpretations around several clear ideas, premises, or images from the literary work.
    c. Justify interpretations through sustained use of examples and textual evidence.
    2.3 Write research reports:
    a. Pose relevant and tightly drawn questions about the topic.
    b. Convey clear and accurate perspectives on the subject.
    c. Include evidence compiled through the formal research process (e.g., use of a card catalog, Reader’s Guide to Periodical Literature, a computer catalog, magazines, newspapers, dictionaries). d. Document reference sources by means of footnotes and a bibliography.
    2.4 Write persuasive compositions:
    a. State a clear position or perspective in support of a proposition or proposal.
    b. Describe the points in support of the proposition, employing well-articulated evidence.
    c. Anticipate and address reader concerns and counterarguments.
    2.5 Write summaries of reading materials:
    a. Include the main ideas and most significant details.
    b. Use the student’s own words, except for quotations c. Reflect underlying meaning, not just the superficial details..46

    GRADE SEVEN Written and Oral English Language Conventions

    WRITTEN AND ORAL ENGLISH LANGUAGE CONVENTIONS

    The standards for written and oral English language conventions have been placed between those for writing and for listening and speaking because these conventions are essential to both sets of skills.

    1.0 Written and Oral English Language Conventions

    Students write and speak with a command of standard English conventions appropriate to the grade level.

    Sentence Structure

    1.1 Place modifiers properly and use the active voice.

    Grammar

    1.2 Identify and use infinitives and participles and make clear references between pronouns
    and antecedents.
    1.3 Identify all parts of speech and types and structure of sentences.
    1.4 Demonstrate the mechanics of writing (e.g., quotation marks, commas at end of dependent
    clauses) and appropriate English usage (e.g., pronoun reference).

    Punctuation

    1.5 Identify hyphens, dashes, brackets, and semicolons and use them correctly.

    Capitalization

    1.6 Use correct capitalization.

    Spelling

    1.7 Spell derivatives correctly by applying the spellings of bases and affixes..47

    LISTENING AND SPEAKING

    1.0. Listening and Speaking Strategies Deliver focused, coherent presentations that convey ideas clearly and relate to the
    background and interests of the audience. Students evaluate the content of oral communication.

    Comprehension

    1.1 Ask probing questions to elicit information, including evidence to support the speaker’s claims and conclusions.
    1.2 Determine the speaker’s attitude toward the subject.1.3 Respond to persuasive messages with questions, challenges, or affirmations.

    Organization and Delivery of Oral Communication

    1.4 Organize information to achieve particular purposes and to appeal to the background
    and interests of the audience.
    1.5 Arrange supporting details, reasons, descriptions, and examples effectively and persuasively
    in relation to the audience.
    1.6 Use speaking techniques, including voice modulation, inflection, tempo, enunciation,
    and eye contact, for effective presentations.

    Analysis and Evaluation of Oral and Media Communications

    1.7 Provide constructive feedback to speakers concerning the coherence and logic of a
    speech’s content and delivery and its overall impact upon the listener.1.8 Analyze the effect on the viewer of images, text, and sound in electronic journalism; identify the techniques used to achieve the effects in each instance studied.

    Listening and Speaking GRADE SEVEN.48

    2.0 Speaking Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics)
    Students deliver well-organized formal presentations employing traditional rhetorical
    strategies (e.g., narration, exposition, persuasion, description). Student speaking demonstrates
    a command of standard American English and the organizational and delivery
    strategies outlined in Listening and Speaking Standard 1.0.
    Using the speaking strategies of grade seven outlined in Listening and Speaking
    Standard 1.0, students:
    2.1 Deliver narrative presentations:
    a. Establish a context, standard plot line (having a beginning, conflict, rising action,
    climax, and denouement), and point of view.
    b. Describe complex major and minor characters and a definite setting. c. Use a range of appropriate strategies, including dialogue, suspense, and naming of
    specific narrative action (e.g., movement, gestures, expressions).
    2.2 Deliver oral summaries of articles and books:
    a. Include the main ideas of the event or article and the most significant details.
    b. Use the student’s own words, except for material quoted from sources. c. Convey a comprehensive understanding of sources, not just superficial details.
    2.3 Deliver research presentations:
    a. Pose relevant and concise questions about the topic.
    b. Convey clear and accurate perspectives on the subject.
    c. Include evidence generated through the formal research process (e.g., use of a card
    catalog, Reader’s Guide to Periodical Literature, computer databases, magazines, news-papers, dictionaries). d. Cite reference sources appropriately.
    2.4 Deliver persuasive presentations:
    a. State a clear position or perspective in support of an argument or proposal.
    b. Describe the points in support of the argument and employ well-articulated evidence.
    GRADE SEVEN Listening and Speaking.49

    Mathematics

    By the end of grade seven, students are adept at manipulating numbers and equations and understand the general principles at work. Students understand and use factoring of numerators and denominators and properties of exponents. They know the Pythagorean theorem and solve problems in which they compute the length of an unknown side. Students know how to compute the surface area and volume of basic three­dimensional objects and understand how area and volume change with a change in scale. Students make conversions between different units of measurement. They know and use different representations of fractional numbers (fractions, decimals, and percents) and are proficient at changing from one to another. They increase their facility with ratio and proportion,

    Analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of civilizations of Islam in the Middle Ages.

    Analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of China in the Middle Ages.

    Analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the sub-Saharan civilizations of Ghana and Mali in Medieval Africa. Analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of Medieval Japan.

    Analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of Medieval Europe.

    Compare and contrast the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the Meso-American and Andean civilizations. Analyze the origins, accomplishments, and geo­graphic diffusion of the Renaissance.

    Analyze the historical developments of the Refor­mation.

    Analyze the historical developments of the Scien­tific Revolution and its lasting effect on religious, political, and cultural institutions.

    Analyze political and economic change in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries (the Age of Exploration, the Enlightenment, and the Age of Reason).

    compute percents of increase and decrease, and compute simple and compound interest. They graph linear functions and understand the idea of slope and its relation to ratio.

    NUMBER SENSE

    Students:

    • Know the properties of, and compute with, rational numbers expressed in a variety of forms.

    • Use exponents, powers, and roots and use expo­nents in working with fractions.

    ALGEBRA AND FUNCTIONS

    Students:

    Express quantitative relationships by using algebraic terminology, expressions, equations, inequalities, and graphs.

    Interpret and evaluate expressions involving integer powers and simple roots.

    Graph and interpret linear and some nonlinear functions.

    Solve simple linear equations and inequalities over the rational numbers.

    MEASUREMENT AND GEOMETRY

    Students:

    Choose appropriate units of measure and use ratios to convert within and between measurement systems to solve problems.

    Compute the perimeter, area, and volume of common geometric objects and use the results to find measures of less common objects. They know how perimeter, area, and volume are affected by changes of scale.

    Know the Pythagorean theorem and deepen their understanding of plane and solid geometric shapes by constructing figures that meet given conditions and by identifying attributes of figures.

    STATISTICS, DATA ANALYSIS, AND PROBABILITY

    • Students collect, organize, and represent data sets that have one or more variables and identify relationships among variables within a data set by hand and through the use of an electronic spread­sheet software program.

    MATHEMATICAL REASONING

    Students:

    Make decisions about how to approach problems. Use strategies, skills, and concepts in finding solutions.

    Determine a solution is complete and move beyond a particular problem by generalizing to other situations.

    Science

    FOCUS ON LIFE SCIENCE

    Cell Biology

    • All living organisms are composed of cells that number from just one to many trillions and whose details usually are visible only through a micro­scope.

    Genetics

    • A typical cell of any organism contains genetic instructions that specify its traits. Those traits may be modified by environmental influences.

    Evolution

    • Biological evolution accounts for the diversity of species developed through gradual processes over many generations.

    Earth and Life History (Earth Science)

    • Evidence from rocks allows us to understand the evolution of life on Earth.

    Structure and Function in Living Systems

    • The anatomy and physiology of plants and animals illustrate the complementary nature of structure and function.

    Physical Principles in Living Systems (Physical Science)

    • Physical principles underlie biological structures and functions.

    Investigation and Experimentation

    • Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations. To understand this concept and to address the content of the other three strands, students should develop their own questions and perform investigations.

    History-Social Science

    The intellectual skills noted below are to be learned through, and applied to, content standards for grades six through eight. They are to be assessed only in conjunction with the content standards in grades six through eight.

    In addition to the standards for grades six through eight, students demonstrate the following intellectual reasoning, reflection, and research skills:

    CHRONOLOGICAL AND SPATIAL THINKING

    Students:

    • Explain how major events are related to one another in time.

    • Construct various time lines of key events, people, and periods of the historical era they are studying. • Use a variety of maps and documents to identify physical and cultural features of neighborhoods, cities, states, and countries and to explain the historical migration of people, expansion and disintegration of empires, and the growth of economic systems.

    RESEARCH, EVIDENCE, AND POINT OF VIEW

    Students:

    Frame questions that can be answered by historical study and research.

    Distinguish fact from opinion in historical narra­tives and stories.

    Distinguish relevant from irrelevant information, essential from incidental information, and verifi­able from unverifiable information in historical narratives and stories.

    Assess the credibility of primary and secondary sources and draw sound conclusions from them. • Detect the different historical points of view on historical events and determine the context in

    which the historical statements were made (the questions asked, sources used, author's perspec­tives).

    HISTORICAL INTERPRETATION

    Students:

    Explain the central issues and problems from the past, placing people and events in a matrix of time and place.

    Understand and distinguish cause, effect, sequence, and correlation in historical events, including the long- and short-term causal relations.

    Explain the sources of historical continuity and how the combination of ideas and events explains the emergence of new patterns.

    Recognize the role of chance, oversight, and error in history.

    Recognize that interpretations of history are subject to change as new information is uncovered. Interpret basic indicators of economic performance and conduct cost-benefit analyses of economic and political issues.

    World History and Geography: Medieval and Early Modern Times

    Students in grade seven study the social, cultural, and technological changes that occurred in Europe, Africa, and Asia in the years A.D. 500-1789. After reviewing the ancient world and the ways in which archaeologists and historians uncover the past, students study the history and geography of great civilizations that were developing concurrently throughout the world during medieval and early modern times. They examine the growing economic interaction among civilizations as well as the ex­change of ideas, beliefs, technologies, and common ties. They learn about the resulting growth of Enlightenment philosophy and the new examination of the concepts of reason and authority, the natural rights of human beings and the divine right of kings, experimentalism in science, and the dogma of belief. Finally, students assess the political forces let loose by the Enlightenment, particularly the rise of demo­cratic ideas, and they learn about the continuing influence of those ideas in the world today. Students:

    • Analyze the causes and effects of the vast expansion ­and ultimate disintegration of the Roman Empire.

    Science

    FOCUS ON LIFE SCIENCE

    Cell Biology

    • All living organisms are composed of cells that number from just one to many trillions and whose details usually are visible only through a micro­scope.

    Genetics

    • A typical cell of any organism contains genetic instructions that specify its traits. Those traits may be modified by environmental influences.

    Evolution

    • Biological evolution accounts for the diversity of species developed through gradual processes over many generations.

    Earth and Life History (Earth Science)

    • Evidence from rocks allows us to understand the evolution of life on Earth.

    Structure and Function in Living Systems

    • The anatomy and physiology of plants and animals illustrate the complementary nature of structure and function.

    Physical Principles in Living Systems (Physical Science)

    • Physical principles underlie biological structures and functions.

    Investigation and Experimentation

    • Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations. To understand this concept and to address the content of the other three strands, students should develop their own questions and perform investigations.
Last Modified on June 25, 2010