• Sixth Grade Standards
     
    READING

    1.0 Word Analysis, Fluency, and Systematic Vocabulary Development

    Students use their knowledge of word origins and word relationships, as well as historical and literary context clues, to determine the meaning of specialized vocabulary and to understand the precise meaning of grade-level-appropriate words.

    Word Recognition

    1.1 Read aloud narrative and expository text fluently and accurately and with appropriate pacing, intonation, and expression.

    Vocabulary and Concept Development

    1.2 Identify and interpret figurative language and words with multiple meanings.
    1.3 Recognize the origins and meanings of frequently used foreign words in English and use
    these words accurately in speaking and writing.
    1.4 Monitor expository text for unknown words or words with novel meanings by using word, sentence, and paragraph clues to determine meaning.
    1.5 Understand and explain "shades of meaning" in related words (e.g., softly and quietly).
    2.0 Reading Comprehension (Focus on Informational Materials)

    Students read and understand grade-level-appropriate material. They describe and connect the essential ideas, arguments, and perspectives of the text by using their knowledge of text structure, organization, and purpose. The selections in Recommended Readings in Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Eight illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students. In addition, by grade eight, students read one million words annually on their own, including a good representation of grade-level-appropriate narrative and expository text (e.g., classic and contemporary literature, magazines, newspapers, online information). In grade six, students continue to make progress toward this goal..36

    GRADE SIX Reading

    Structural Features of Informational Materials
    2.1 Identify the structural features of popular media (e.g., newspapers, magazines, online information) and use the features to obtain information.
    2.2 Analyze text that uses the compare-and-contrast organizational pattern.
    Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text
    2.3 Connect and clarify main ideas by identifying their relationships to other sources and related topics.
    2.4 Clarify an understanding of texts by creating outlines, logical notes, summaries, or reports.
    2.5 Follow multiple-step instructions for preparing applications (e.g., for a public library card, bank savings account, sports club, league membership).

    Expository Critique

    2.6 Determine the adequacy and appropriateness of the evidence for an author’s conclusions.2.7 Make reasonable assertions about a text through accurate, supporting citations.
    2.8 Note instances of unsupported inferences, fallacious reasoning, persuasion, and propaganda in text.
    3.0 Literary Response and Analysis
    Students read and respond to historically or culturally significant works of literature that reflect and enhance their studies of history and social science. They clarify the ideas and connect them to other literary works. The selections in Recommended Readings in Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Eight illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students.

    Structural Features of Literature

    3.1 Identify the forms of fiction and describe the major characteristics of each form.
    Narrative Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text
    3.2 Analyze the effect of the qualities of the character (e.g., courage or cowardice, ambition
    or laziness) on the plot and the resolution of the conflict.
    3.3 Analyze the influence of setting on the problem and its resolution.
    3.4 Define how tone or meaning is conveyed in poetry through word choice, figurative language, sentence structure, line length, punctuation, rhythm, repetition, and rhyme.
    3.5 Identify the speaker and recognize the difference between first- and third-person narration (e.g., autobiography compared with biography).
    3.6 Identify and analyze features of themes conveyed through characters, actions, and images.
    3.7 Explain the effects of common literary devices (e.g., symbolism, imagery, metaphor) in a variety of fictional and non-fictional texts.

    Literary Criticism

    3.8 Critique the credibility of characterization and the degree to which a plot is contrived or realistic (e.g., compare use of fact and fantasy in historical fiction)..37

    Writing GRADE SIX

    WRITING

    1.0 Writing Strategies

    Students write clear, coherent, and focused essays. The writing exhibits students’ awareness of the audience and purpose. Essays contain formal introductions, supporting evidence, and conclusions. Students progress through the stages of the writing process as needed.

    Organization and Focus

    1.1 Choose the form of writing (e.g., personal letter, letter to the editor, review, poem, report, narrative) that best suits the intended purpose.
    1.2 Create multiple-paragraph expository compositions:
    a. Engage the interest of the reader and state a clear purpose.
    b. Develop the topic with supporting details and precise verbs, nouns, and adjectives to paint a visual image in the mind of the reader.
    c. Conclude with a detailed summary linked to the purpose of the composition.
    1.3 Use a variety of effective and coherent organizational patterns, including comparison and contrast; organization by categories; and arrangement by spatial order, order of importance, or climactic order.

    Research and Technology

    1.4 Use organizational features of electronic text (e.g., bulletin boards, databases, keyword searches, e-mail addresses) to locate information.
    1.5 Compose documents with appropriate formatting by using word-processing skills and principles of design (e.g., margins, tabs, spacing, columns, page orientation).
    Evaluation and Revision
    1.6 Revise writing to improve the organization and consistency of ideas within and between
    paragraphs..38

    GRADE SIX Writing

    2.0 Writing Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics) Students write narrative, expository, persuasive, and descriptive texts of at least 500 to 700 words in each genre. Student writing demonstrates a command of standard American
    English and the research, organizational, and drafting strategies outlined in Writing Standard 1.0.
    Using the writing strategies of grade six outlined in Writing Standard 1.0, students:
    2.1 Write narratives:
    a. Establish and develop a plot and setting and present a point of view that is appropriate
    to the stories.
    b. Include sensory details and concrete language to develop plot and character.
    c. Use a range of narrative devices (e.g., dialogue, suspense). 2.2 Write expository compositions (e.g., description, explanation, comparison and contrast, problem and solution):
    a. State the thesis or purpose.
    b. Explain the situation.
    c. Follow an organizational pattern appropriate to the type of composition.
    d. Offer persuasive evidence to validate arguments and conclusions as needed.
    2.3 Write research reports:
    a. Pose relevant questions with a scope narrow enough to be thoroughly covered.
    b. Support the main idea or ideas with facts, details, examples, and explanations from multiple authoritative sources (e.g., speakers, periodicals, online information searches).
    c. Include a bibliography. 2.4 Write responses to literature:
    a. Develop an interpretation exhibiting careful reading, understanding, and insight.
    b. Organize the interpretation around several clear ideas, premises, or images.
    c. Develop and justify the interpretation through sustained use of examples and textual evidence.
    2.5 Write persuasive compositions:
    a. State a clear position on a proposition or proposal.
    b. Support the position with organized and relevant evidence.
    c. Anticipate and address reader concerns and counterarguments..39

    WRITTEN AND ORAL ENGLISH LANGUAGE CONVENTIONS

    The standards for written and oral English language conventions have been placed between those for writing and for listening and speaking because these conventions are essential to both sets of skills.
    1.0 Written and Oral English Language Conventions Students write and speak with a command of standard English conventions appropriate to this grade level.
    Sentence Structure
    1.1 Use simple, compound, and compound-complex sentences; use effective coordination and subordination of ideas to express complete thoughts.

    Grammar

    1.2 Identify and properly use indefinite pronouns and present perfect, past perfect, and future perfect verb tenses; ensure that verbs agree with compound subjects.

    Punctuation

    1.3 Use colons after the salutation in business letters, semicolons to connect independent clauses, and commas when linking two clauses with a conjunction in compound sentences.

    Capitalization

    1.4 Use correct capitalization.

    Spelling

    1.5 Spell frequently misspelled words correctly (e.g., their, they’re, there). Written and Oral English Language Conventions GRADE SIX.40
    GRADE SIX Listening and Speaking

    LISTENING AND SPEAKING

    1.0 Listening and Speaking Strategies Students deliver focused, coherent presentations that convey ideas clearly and relate to the background and interests of the audience. They evaluate the content of oral communication.

    Comprehension

    1.1 Relate the speaker’s verbal communication (e.g., word choice, pitch, feeling, tone) to then on verbal message (e.g., posture, gesture).
    1.2 Identify the tone, mood, and emotion conveyed in the oral communication.
    1.3 Restate and execute multiple-step oral instructions and directions.

    Organization and Delivery of Oral Communication

    1.4 Select a focus, an organizational structure, and a point of view, matching the purpose, message, occasion, and vocal modulation to the audience.
    1.5 Emphasize salient points to assist the listener in following the main ideas and concepts.
    1.6 Support opinions with detailed evidence and with visual or media displays that use appropriate technology.
    1.7 Use effective rate, volume, pitch, and tone and align nonverbal elements to sustain audience interest and attention.

    Analysis and Evaluation of Oral and Media Communications

    1.8 Analyze the use of rhetorical devices (e.g., cadence, repetitive patterns, use of onomatopoeia) for intent and effect.
    1.9 Identify persuasive and propaganda techniques used in television and identify false and misleading information..412.0 Speaking Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics) Students deliver well-organized formal presentations employing traditional rhetorical strategies (e.g., narration, exposition, persuasion, description). Student speaking demonstrates
    a command of standard American English and the organizational and delivery strategies outlined in Listening and Speaking Standard 1.0.
    Using the speaking strategies of grade six outlined in Listening and Speaking Standard
    1.0, students:
    2.1 Deliver narrative presentations: a. Establish a context, plot, and point of view.
    b. Include sensory details and concrete language to develop the plot and character.
    c. Use a range of narrative devices (e.g., dialogue, tension, or suspense).
    2.2 Deliver informative presentations:
    a. Pose relevant questions sufficiently limited in scope to be completely and thoroughly answered.
    b. Develop the topic with facts, details, examples, and explanations from multiple authoritative sources (e.g., speakers, periodicals, online information).
    2.3 Deliver oral responses to literature:
    a. Develop an interpretation exhibiting careful reading, understanding, and insight.
    b. Organize the selected interpretation around several clear ideas, premises, or images.
    c. Develop and justify the selected interpretation through sustained use of examples and textual evidence.
    2.4 Deliver persuasive presentations:
    a. Provide a clear statement of the position.
    b. Include relevant evidence.
    c. Offer a logical sequence of information.
    d. Engage the listener and foster acceptance of the proposition or proposal.
    2.5 Deliver presentations on problems and solutions:
    a. Theorize on the causes and effects of each problem and establish connections between the defined problem and at least one solution.
    b. Offer persuasive evidence to validate the definition of the problem and the proposed solutions.
    Listening and Speaking GRADE SIX.42

    Mathematics

    By the end of grade six, students have mastered the four arithmetic operations with whole numbers, positive fractions, positive decimals, and positive and negative integers; they accurately compute and solve problems. They apply their knowledge to statistics and probability. Students understand the concepts of mean, median, and mode of data sets and how to calculate the range. They analyze data and sampling processes for possible bias and misleading conclu­sions; they use addition and multiplication of fractions routinely to calculate the probabilities for compound events. Students conceptually understand and work with ratios and proportions; they compute percentages (e.g., tax, tips, interest). Students know about ii and the formulas for the circumference and area of a circle. They use letters for numbers in formulas involving geometric shapes and in ratios to represent an unknown part of an expression. They solve one-step linear equations.

    NUMBER SENSE Students:

    • Compare and order positive and negative fractions, decimals, and mixed numbers. Students solve problems involving fractions, ratios, proportions, and percentages.

    • Calculate and solve problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.

    ALGEBRA AND FUNCTIONS Students:

    Write verbal expressions and sentences as algebraic expressions and equations; they evaluate algebraic expressions, solve simple linear equations, and graph and interpret their results.

    Analyze and use tables, graphs, and rules to solve problems involving rates and proportions. Investigate geometric patterns and describe them algebraically.

    MEASUREMENT AND GEOMETRY

    Students:

    • Deepen their understanding of the measurement of plane and solid shapes and use this understanding to solve problems.

    • Identify and describe the properties of two­dimensional figures.

    STATISTICS, DATA ANALYSIS, AND PROBABILITY

    Students:

    • Compute and analyze statistical measurements for data sets.

    • Use data samples of a population and describe the characteristics and limitations of the samples.

    • Determine theoretical and experimental probabili­ties and use these to make predictions about events.

    MATHEMATICAL REASONING

    Students:

    Make decisions about how to approach problems. Use strategies, skills, and concepts in finding solutions.

    Move beyond a particular problem by generalizing to other situations.

    Science

    FOCUS ON EARTH SCIENCE

    Plate Tectonics and Earth's Structure

    • Plate tectonics explains important features of Earth's surface and major geologic events.

    Shaping of the Earth's Surface

    • Topography is reshaped by weathering of rock and soil and by the transportation and deposition of sediment.

    Heat (Thermal Energy) (Physical Science)

    • Heat moves in a predictable flow from warmer objects to cooler objects until all the objects are at the same temperature.

    Energy in the Earth System

    • Many phenomena on Earth's surface are affected by the transfer of energy through radiation and convection currents.

    Ecology (Life Science)

    • Organisms in ecosystems exchange energy and nutrients among themselves and with the environ­ment.

    Resources

    • Sources of energy and materials differ in amounts, distribution, usefulness, and the time required for their formation.

    Investigation and Experimentation

    • Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations. To understand this concept and to address the content of the other three strands, students should develop their own questions and perform investiga­tions.

    History-Social Science
    The intellectual skills noted below are to be learned through, and applied to, content standards for grades six through eight. They are to be assessed only in conjunction with the content standards in grades six through eight.

    In addition to the standards for grades six through eight, students demonstrate the following intellectual reasoning, reflection, and research skills:

    CHRONOLOGICAL AND SPATIAL THINKING

    Students:

    • Explain how major events are related to each other

    Construct various time lines of key events, people, and periods of the historical era they are studying. Use a variety of maps and documents to identify physical and cultural features of neighborhoods, cities, states, and countries and to explain the historical migration of people, expansion and disintegration of empires, and the growth of economic systems.

    RESEARCH, EVIDENCE, AND POINT OF VIEW

    Students:

    Frame questions that can be answered by historical study and research.

    Distinguish fact from opinion in historical narra­tives and stories.

    Distinguish relevant from irrelevant information, essential from incidental information, and verifi­able from unverifiable information in historical narratives and stories.

    • Detect the different historical points of view on historical events and determine the context in which the historical statements were made (the questions asked, sources used, author's perspec­tives).

    HISTORICAL INTERPRETATION

    Students:

    Explain the central issues and problems of the past, placing people and events in a matrix of time and place.

    Understand and distinguish cause, effect, sequence, and correlation in historical events, including the long- and short-term causal relations.

    Explain the sources of historical continuity and how the combination of ideas and events explains the emergence of new patterns.

    Recognize the role of chance, oversight, and error in history.

    Recognize that interpretations of history are subject to change as new information is uncovered. Interpret basic indicators of economic performance and conduct cost/benefit analyses of economic and political issues.

    World History and Geography: Ancient Civilizations

    Students in grade six expand their understanding of history by studying the people and events that ushered in the dawn of the major Western and non-­Western ancient civilizations. Geography is of special significance in the development of the human story. Continued emphasis is placed on the everyday lives, problems, and accomplishments of people, their role in developing social, economic, and political struc­tures, as well as in establishing and spreading ideas that helped transform the world forever. Students develop higher levels of critical thinking by consider­ing why civilizations developed, where and when they did, why they became dominant, and why they declined. Students analyze the interactions among the various cultures, emphasizing their enduring contri­butions and the link, despite time, between the contemporary and ancient worlds.



    Students:

    Describe what is known through archeological studies of the early physical and cultural develop­ment of mankind from the Paleolithic Era to the agricultural revolution.

    Analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the early civiliza­tions of Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Kush

    Analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the early civiliza­tions of the Ancient Hebrews.

    Analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious and social structures of the early civiliza­tion of Ancient Greece.

    Analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the early civiliza­tions of India.

    Analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the early civiliza­tions of China.

    Analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures in the development of Rome.

    Science

    FOCUS ON EARTH SCIENCE Plate Tectonics and Earth's Structure

    • Plate tectonics explains important features of Earth's surface and major geologic events. Shaping of the Earth's Surface

    • Topography is reshaped by weathering of rock and soil and by the transportation and deposition of sediment.

    Heat (Thermal Energy) (Physical Science)

    • Heat moves in a predictable flow from warmer objects to cooler objects until all the same temperature.

    Energy in the Earth System

    • Many phenomena on Earth's surface are affected by the transfer of energy through radiation and convection currents.

    Ecology (Life Science)

    • Organisms in ecosystems exchange energy and nutrients among themselves and with the environ­ment.

    Resources
    • Sources of energy and materials differ in amounts, distribution, usefulness, and the time required for their formation.

    Investigation and Experimentation

    • Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations. To understand this concept and to address the content of the other three strands, students should develop their own questions and perform investiga­tions.
Last Modified on June 25, 2010