• Fifth Grade Standards
     
    Lakeside Union School District utilizes content standards developed by the state to guide us in designing specific curricular and instruction strategies that best deliver the content to students. Each standard describes the content students should be able to master by the end of third grade.
    LANGUAGE ARTS

    READING
    1.0 Word Analysis, Fluency, and Systematic Vocabulary Development
    Students understand the basic features of reading. They select letter patterns and know how to translate them into spoken language by using phonics, syllabication, and word parts. They apply this knowledge to achieve fluent oral and silent reading.

    Word Recognition
    1.1 Read aloud narrative and expository text fluently and accurately and with appropriate
    pacing, intonation, and expression.
    Vocabulary and Concept Development
    1.2 Use word origins to determine the meaning of unknown words.
    1.3 Understand and explain frequently used synonyms, antonyms, and homographs.
    1.4 Know abstract, derived roots and affixes from Greek and Latin and use this knowledge to analyze the meaning of complex words (e.g., controversial).
    1.5 Understand and explain the figurative and metaphorical use of words in context.

    2.0 Reading Comprehension (Focus on Informational Materials)
    Students read and understand grade-level-appropriate material. They describe and
    connect the essential ideas, arguments, and perspectives of the text by using their knowledge of text structure, organization, and purpose. The selections in Recommended Readings in Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Eight illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students. In addition, by grade eight, students read one million words annually on their own, including a good representation of grade-level-appropriate narrative and expository text (e.g., classic and contemporary literature, magazines, newspapers, online information). In grade five, students make progress toward this goal.
    Structural Features of Informational Materials
    2.1 Understand how text features (e.g., format, graphics, sequence, diagrams, illustrations, charts, maps) make information accessible and usable.
    2.2 Analyze text that is organized in sequential or chronological order.
    Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text
    2.3 Discern main ideas and concepts presented in texts, identifying and assessing evidence that supports those ideas.
    2.4 Draw inferences, conclusions, or generalizations about text and support them with
    textual evidence and prior knowledge. Expository Critique
    2.5 Distinguish facts, supported inferences, and opinions in text.

    3.0 Literary Response and Analysis
    Students read and respond to historically or culturally significant works of literature. They begin to find ways to clarify the ideas and make connections between literary works. The selections in Recommended Readings in Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Eight illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students.
    Structural Features of Literature
    3.1 Identify and analyze the characteristics of poetry, drama, fiction, and nonfiction and
    explain the appropriateness of the literary forms chosen by an author for a specific
    purpose.
    Narrative Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text
    3.2 Identify the main problem or conflict of the plot and explain how it is resolved.
    3.3 Contrast the actions, motives (e.g., loyalty, selfishness, conscientiousness), and appearances of characters in a work of fiction and discuss the importance of the contrasts to the plot or theme.
    3.4 Understand that theme refers to the meaning or moral of a selection and recognize themes (whether implied or stated directly) in sample works.
    3.5 Describe the function and effect of common literary devices (e.g., imagery, metaphor, symbolism).
    Literary Criticism
    3.6 Evaluate the meaning of archetypal patterns and symbols that are found in myth and
    tradition by using literature from different eras and cultures.
    3.7 Evaluate the author's use of various techniques (e.g., appeal of characters in a picture
    book, logic and credibility of plots and settings, use of figurative language) to influence
    readers' perspectives.

    WRITING 1.0 Writing Strategies
    Students write clear, coherent, and focused essays. The writing exhibits the students' awareness of the audience and purpose. Essays contain formal introductions, supporting evidence, and conclusions. Students progress through the stages of the writing process as needed.
    Organization and Focus
    1.1 Create multiple-paragraph narrative compositions:
    a. Establish and develop a situation or plot.
    b. Describe the setting.
    c. Present an ending.
    1.2 Create multiple-paragraph expository compositions:
    a. Establish a topic, important ideas, or events in sequence or chronological order.
    b. Provide details and transitional expressions that link one paragraph to another in a
    clear line of thought.
    c. Offer a concluding paragraph that summarizes important ideas and details.
    Research and Technology
    1.3 Use organizational features of printed text (e.g., citations, end notes, bibliographic
    references) to locate relevant information.
    1.4 Create simple documents by using electronic media and employing organizational
    features (e.g., passwords, entry and pull-down menus, word searches, the thesaurus,
    spell checks).
    1.5 Use a thesaurus to identify alternative word choices and meanings.
    Evaluation and Revision
    1.6 Edit and revise manuscripts to improve the meaning and focus of writing by adding,
    deleting, consolidating, clarifying, and rearranging words and sentences.

    2.0 Writing Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics)
    Students write narrative, expository, persuasive, and descriptive texts of at least 500 to 700 words in each genre. Student writing demonstrates a command of standard American English and the research, organizational, and drafting strategies outlined in Writing Standard 1.0. Using the writing strategies of grade five outlined in Writing Standard 1.0, students:
    2.1 Write narratives:
    a. Establish a plot, point of view, setting, and conflict.
    b. Show, rather than tell, the events of the story.
    2.2 Write responses to literature:
    a. Demonstrate an understanding of a literary work.
    a. Support judgments through references to the text and to prior knowledge.
    c. Develop interpretations that exhibit careful reading and understanding.
    2.3 Write research reports about important ideas, issues, or events by using the following
    guidelines:
    a. Frame questions that direct the investigation.
    b. Establish a controlling idea or topic.
    c. Develop the topic with simple facts, details, examples, and explanations.
    2.4 Write persuasive letters or compositions:
    a. State a clear position in support of a proposal.
    b. Support a position with relevant evidence.
    c. Follow a simple organizational pattern.
    d. Address reader concerns.

    WRITTEN AND ORAL ENGLISH LANGUAGE CONVENTIONS
    The standards for written and oral English language conventions have been placed
    between those for writing and for listening and speaking because these conventions are
    essential to both sets of skills.

    1.0 Written and Oral English Language Conventions
    Students write and speak with a command of standard English conventions appropriate to this grade level.
    Sentence Structure
    1.1 Identify and correctly use prepositional phrases, appositives, and independent and
    dependent clauses; use transitions and conjunctions to connect ideas.
    Grammar
    1.2 Identify and correctly use verbs that are often misused (e.g., lie/lay, sit/set, rise/raise),
    modifiers, and pronouns.
    Punctuation
    1.3 Use a colon to separate hours and minutes and to introduce a list; use quotation marks
    around the exact words of a speaker and titles of poems, songs, short stories, and so
    forth.
    Capitalization
    1.4. Use correct capitalization.
    Spelling
    1.5 Spell roots, suffixes, prefixes, contractions, and syllable constructions correctly.

    LISTENING AND SPEAKING
    1.0 Listening and Speaking Strategies
    Students deliver focused, coherent presentations that convey ideas clearly and relate to the background and interests of the audience. They evaluate the content of oral communication. Comprehension
    1.1 Ask questions that seek information not already discussed.
    1.2 Interpret a speaker's verbal and nonverbal messages, purposes, and perspectives.
    1.3 Make inferences or draw conclusions based on an oral report.
    Organization and Delivery of Oral Communication
    1.4 Select a focus, organizational structure, and point of view for an oral presentation.
    1.5 Clarify and support spoken ideas with evidence and examples.
    1.6 Engage the audience with appropriate verbal cues, facial expressions, and gestures.
    Analysis and Evaluation of Oral and Media Communications
    1.7 Identify, analyze, and critique persuasive techniques (e.g., promises, dares, flattery,
    glittering generalities); identify logical fallacies used in oral presentations and media
    messages.
    1.8 Analyze media as sources for information, entertainment, persuasion, interpretation of
    events, and transmission of culture.

    2.0 Speaking Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics)
    Students deliver well-organized formal presentations employing traditional rhetorical strategies (e.g., narration, exposition, persuasion, description). Student speaking demonstrates a command of standard American English and the organizational and delivery strategies outlined in Listening and Speaking Standard 1.0.
    Using the speaking strategies of grade five outlined in Listening and Speaking Standard 1.0, students:
    2.1 Deliver narrative presentations:
    a. Establish a situation, plot, point of view, and setting with descriptive words and
    phrases.
    b. Show, rather than tell, the listener what happens.
    2.2 Deliver informative presentations about an important idea, issue, or event by the following means:
    a. Frame questions to direct the investigation.
    b. Establish a controlling idea or topic.
    c. Develop the topic with simple facts, details, examples, and explanations.
    2.3 Deliver oral responses to literature:
    a. Summarize significant events and details.
    b. Articulate an understanding of several ideas or images communicated by the literary
    work.
    c. Use examples or textual evidence from the work to support conclusions.

    MATHEMATICS By the end of grade five, students increase their facility with the four basic
    arithmetic operations applied to fractions, decimals, and positive and negative
    numbers. They know and use common measuring units to determine length and
    area and know and use formulas to determine the volume of simple geometric
    figures. Students know the concept of angle measurement and use a protractor
    and compass to solve problems. They use grids, tables, graphs, and charts to
    record and analyze data.

    Number Sense
    1.0 Students compute with very large and very small numbers, positive integers,
    decimals, and fractions and understand the relationship between decimals,
    fractions, and percents. They understand the relative magnitudes of numbers:
    1.1 Estimate, round, and manipulate very large (e.g., millions) and very small
    (e.g., thousandths) numbers.
    1.2 Interpret percents as a part of a hundred; find decimal and percent equivalents for
    common fractions and explain why they represent the same value; compute a given
    percent of a whole number.
    1.3 Understand and compute positive integer powers of nonnegative integers; compute
    examples as repeated multiplication.
    1.4 Determine the prime factors of all numbers through 50 and write the numbers as
    the product of their prime factors by using exponents to show multiples of a factor (e.g., 24 = 2 ??2 ??2 ??3 = 2 3 ??3).
    1.5 Identify and represent on a number line decimals, fractions, mixed numbers, and
    positive and negative integers.
    2.0 Students perform calculations and solve problems involving addition, subtraction, and simple multiplication and division of fractions and decimals:
    2.1 Add, subtract, multiply, and divide with decimals; add with negative integers;
    subtract positive integers from negative integers; and verify the reasonableness of
    the results.
    2.2 Demonstrate proficiency with division, including division with positive decimals
    and long division with multi-digit divisors.
    2.3 Solve simple problems, including ones arising in concrete situations, involving the
    addition and subtraction of fractions and mixed numbers (like and unlike denominators
    of 20 or less), and express answers in the simplest form.
    2.4 Understand the concept of multiplication and division of fractions.
    2.5 Compute and perform simple multiplication and division of fractions and apply
    these procedures to solving problems.

    Algebra and Functions
    1.0 Students use variables in simple expressions, compute the value of the expression for specific values of the variable, and plot and interpret the results:
    1.1 Use information taken from a graph or equation to answer questions about a
    problem situation.
    1.2 Use a letter to represent an unknown number; write and evaluate simple algebraic
    expressions in one variable by substitution.
    1.3 Know and use the distributive property in equations and expressions with
    variables.
    1.4 Identify and graph ordered pairs in the four quadrants of the coordinate plane.
    1.5 Solve problems involving linear functions with integer values; write the equation;
    and graph the resulting ordered pairs of integers on a grid.

    Measurement and Geometry
    1.0 Students understand and compute the volumes and areas of simple objects:
    1.1 Derive and use the formula for the area of a triangle and of a parallelogram by
    comparing it with the formula for the area of a rectangle (i.e., two of the same
    triangles make a parallelogram with twice the area; a parallelogram is compared
    with a rectangle of the same area by cutting and pasting a right triangle on the
    parallelogram).
    1.2 Construct a cube and rectangular box from two-dimensional patterns and use
    these patterns to compute the surface area for these objects.
    1.3 Understand the concept of volume and use the appropriate units in common
    measuring systems (i.e., cubic centimeter [cm 3 ], cubic meter [m 3 ], cubic inch
    [in 3 ], cubic yard [yd 3 ]) to compute the volume of rectangular solids.
    1.4 Differentiate between, and use appropriate units of measures for, two- and
    three-dimensional objects (i.e., find the perimeter, area, volume).
    2.0 Students identify, describe, and classify the properties of, and the relationships
    between, plane and solid geometric figures:
    2.1 Measure, identify, and draw angles, perpendicular and parallel lines, rectangles,
    and triangles by using appropriate tools (e.g., straightedge, ruler, compass,
    protractor, drawing software).
    2.2 Know that the sum of the angles of any triangle is 18???and the sum of the angles
    of any quadrilateral is 36???and use this information to solve problems.
    2.3 Visualize and draw two-dimensional views of three-dimensional objects made
    from rectangular solids.

    Statistics, Data Analysis, and Probability
    1.0 Students display, analyze, compare, and interpret different data sets, including
    data sets of different sizes:
    1.1 Know the concepts of mean, median, and mode; compute and compare simple
    examples to show that they may differ.
    1.2 Organize and display single-variable data in appropriate graphs and representations
    (e.g., histogram, circle graphs) and explain which types of graphs are appropriate
    for various data sets.
    1.3 Use fractions and percentages to compare data sets of different sizes.
    1.4 Identify ordered pairs of data from a graph and interpret the meaning of the data
    in terms of the situation depicted by the graph.
    1.5 Know how to write ordered pairs correctly; for example, (x, y).

    Mathematical Reasoning
    1.0 Students make decisions about how to approach problems:
    1.1 Analyze problems by identifying relationships, distinguishing relevant from
    irrelevant information, sequencing and prioritizing information, and observing
    patterns.
    1.2 Determine when and how to break a problem into simpler parts.
    2.0 Students use strategies, skills, and concepts in finding solutions:
    2.1 Use estimation to verify the reasonableness of calculated results.
    2.2 Apply strategies and results from simpler problems to more complex problems.
    2.3 Use a variety of methods, such as words, numbers, symbols, charts, graphs, tables,
    diagrams, and models, to explain mathematical reasoning.
    2.4 Express the solution clearly and logically by using the appropriate mathematical
    notation and terms and clear language; support solutions with evidence in both
    verbal and symbolic work.
    2.5 Indicate the relative advantages of exact and approximate solutions to problems
    and give answers to a specified degree of accuracy.
    2.6 Make precise calculations and check the validity of the results from the context
    of the problem.
    3.0 Students move beyond a particular problem by generalizing to other
    situations:
    3.1 Evaluate the reasonableness of the solution in the context of the original situation.
    3.2 Note the method of deriving the solution and demonstrate a conceptual under-standing
    of the derivation by solving similar problems.
    3.3 Develop generalizations of the results obtained and apply them in other
    circumstances.

    HISTORY-SOCIAL SCIENCE United States History and Geography: Making a New Nation


    Students in grade five study the development of the nation up to 1850, with an empha-
    sis on the people who were already here when and from where others arrived, and
    why they came. Students learn about the colonial government founded on Judeo-
    Christian principles, the ideals of the Enlightenment, and the English traditions of self-
    government. They recognize that ours is a nation that has a constitution that derives its
    power from the people, that has gone through a revolution, that once sanctioned sla-
    very, that experienced conflict over land with the original inhabitants, and that experi-
    enced a westward movement that took its people across the continent. Studying the
    cause, course, and consequences of the early explorations through the War for Indepen-
    dence and western expansion is central to students' fundamental understanding of how
    the principles of the American republic form the basis of a pluralistic society in which
    individual rights are secured.

    1.0 Students describe the major pre-Columbian settlements, including the cliff
    dwellers and pueblo people of the desert Southwest, the American Indians of
    the Pacific Northwest, the nomadic nations of the Great Plains, and the wood-
    land peoples east of the Mississippi River. 1.1 Describe how geography and climate influenced the way various nations lived and
    adjusted to the natural environment including locations of villages, the distinct structures
    that they built, and how they obtained food, clothing, tools, and utensils.
    1.2 Describe their varied customs and folklore traditions.
    1.3 Explain their varied economies and systems of government.
    2.0 Students trace the routes of early explorers and describe the early explorations
    of the Americas.
    2.1 Describe the entrepreneurial characteristics of early explorers (e.g., Christopher
    Columbus, Francisco Vásquez de Coronado) and the technological developments
    that made sea exploration by latitude and longitude possible (e.g., compass, sextant,
    astrolabe, seaworthy ships, chronometers, gunpowder).
    2.2 Explain the aims, obstacles, and accomplishments of the explorers, sponsors, and
    leaders of key European expeditions and the reasons Europeans chose to explore and
    colonize the world (e.g., the Spanish Reconquista, the Protestant Reformation, the
    Counter Reformation).
    2.3 Trace the routes of the major land explorers of the United States, the distances traveled by explorers, and the Atlantic trade routes that linked Africa, the West Indies, the British colonies, and Europe.
    2.4 Locate on maps of North and South America land claimed by Spain, France, England,
    Portugal, the Netherlands, Sweden, and Russia.
    3.0 Students describe the cooperation and conflict that existed among the American
    Indians and between the Indian nations and the new settlers.
    3.1 Describe the competition among the English, French, Spanish, Dutch, and Indian
    nations for control of North America.
    3.2 Describe the cooperation that existed between the colonists and Indians during the
    1600s and 1700s (e.g., in agriculture, the fur trade, military alliances, treaties, cultural
    interchanges).
    3.3 Examine the conflicts before the Revolutionary War (e.g., the Pequot and King
    Philip's Wars in New England, the Powhatan Wars in Virginia, the French and Indian War).
    3.4 Discuss the role of broken treaties and massacres and the factors that led to the Indians' defeat, including the resistance of Indian nations to encroachments and assimilation (e.g., the story of the Trail of Tears).
    3.5 Describe the internecine Indian conflicts, including the competing claims for control of lands (e.g. , actions of the Iroquois, Huron, Lakota [Sioux ]).3.6 Explain the influence and achievements of significant leaders of the time (e.g., John
    Marshall, Andrew Jackson, Chief Tecumseh, Chief Logan, Chief John Ross, Sequoyah).
    4.0 Students understand the political, religious, social, and economic institutions
    that evolved in the colonial era.
    4.1 Understand the influence of location and physical setting on the founding of the
    original 13 colonies, and identify on a map the locations of the colonies and of the
    American Indian nations already inhabiting these areas.
    4.2 Identify the major individuals and groups responsible for the founding of the various
    colonies and the reasons for their founding (e.g., John Smith, Virginia; Roger Williams,
    Rhode Island; William Penn, Pennsylvania; Lord Baltimore, Maryland; William
    Bradford, Plymouth; John Winthrop, Massachusetts).
    4.3 Describe the religious aspects of the earliest colonies (e.g., Puritanism in Massachusetts, Anglicanism in Virginia, Catholicism in Maryland, Quakerism in Pennsylvania).
    4.4 Identify the significance and leaders of the First Great Awakening, which marked a
    shift in religious ideas, practices, and allegiances in the colonial period, the growth of
    religious toleration, and free exercise of religion.
    4.5 Understand how the British colonial period created the basis for the development of
    political self-government and a free-market economic system and the differences
    between the British, Spanish, and French colonial systems.
    4.6 Describe the introduction of slavery into America, the responses of slave families to
    their condition the ongoing struggle between proponents and opponents of slavery,
    and the gradual institutionalization of slavery in the South.4.7 Explain the early democratic ideas and practices that emerged during the colonial
    period, including the significance of representative assemblies and town meetings.
    5.0 Students explain the causes of the American Revolution.
    5.1 Understand how political, religious, and economic ideas and interests brought about
    the Revolution (e.g., resistance to imperial policy, the Stamp Act the Townshend Acts,
    taxes on tea, Coercive Acts).
    5.2 Know the significance of the first and second Continental Congresses and of the
    Committees of Correspondence.
    5.3 Understand the people and events associated with the drafting and signing of the
    Declaration of Independence and the document's significance, including the key
    political concepts it embodies, the origins of those concepts, and its role in severing
    ties with Great Britain.
    5.4 Describe the views, lives, and impact of key individuals during this period (e.g.,
    King George III, Patrick Henry, Thomas Jefferson, George Washington, Benjamin
    Franklin, John Adams).
    6.0 Students understand the course and consequences of the American Revolution.
    6.1 Identify and map the major military battles, campaigns, and turning points of the
    Revolutionary War, the roles of the American and British leaders, and the Indian
    leaders' alliances on both sides..
    6.2 Describe the contributions of France and other nations and of individuals to the outcome of the Revolution (e.g., Benjamin Franklin's negotiations with the French, the
    French navy, the Treaty of Paris, The Netherlands, Russia, the Marquis Marie Joseph
    de Lafayette, Tadeusz Ko´sciuszko, Baron Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben).
    6.3 Identify the different roles women played during the Revolution (e.g., Abigail Adams, Martha Washington, Molly Pitcher, Phillis Wheatley, Mercy Otis Warren).
    6.4 Understand the personal impact and economic hardship of the war on families, problems of financing the war, wartime inflation ,and laws against hoarding goods and materials and profiteering.
    6.5 Explain how state constitutions that were established after 1776 embodied the ideals of the American Revolution and helped serve as models for the U.S. Constitution.
    6.6 Demonstrate knowledge of the significance of land policies developed under the
    Continental Congress (e.g., sale of western lands, the Northwest Ordinance of 1787)
    and those policies' impact on American Indians' land..
    6.7 Understand how the ideals set forth in the Declaration of Independence changed the
    way people viewed slavery.
    7.0 Students describe the people and events associated with the development of the
    U.S. Constitution and analyze the Constitution's significance as the foundation
    of the American republic. 7.1 List the shortcomings of the Articles of Confederation as set forth by their critics.
    7.2 Explain the significance of the new Constitution of 1787,including the struggles over
    its ratification and the reasons for the addition of the Bill of Rights.
    7.3 Understand the fundamental principles of American constitutional democracy,
    including how the government derives its power from the people and the primacy of
    individual liberty.
    7.4 Understand how the Constitution is designed to secure our liberty by both empowering and limiting central government and compare the powers granted to citizens, Congress, the president, and the Supreme Court with those reserved to the states.
    7.5 Discuss the meaning of the American creed that calls on citizens to safeguard the
    liberty of individual Americans within a unified nation, to respect the rule of law, and
    to preserve the Constitution.
    7.6 Know the songs that express American ideals (e.g., "America the Beautiful," "The Star Spangled Banner ").
    8.0 Students trace the colonization, immigration, and settlement patterns of the
    American people from 1789 to the mid-1800s,with emphasis on the role of
    economic incentives, effects of the physical and political geography, and
    transportation systems.
    8.1 Discuss the waves of immigrants from Europe between 1789 and 1850 and their modes of transportation into the Ohio and Mississippi Valleys and through the Cumberland Gap (e.g., overland wagons, canals, flatboats, steamboats).
    8.2 Name the states and territories that existed in 1850 and identify their locations and
    major geographical features (e.g., mountain ranges, principal rivers, dominant plant
    regions).
    8.3 Demonstrate knowledge of the explorations of the trans-Mississippi West following
    the Louisiana Purchase (e.g., Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, Zebulon Pike,
    John Fremont).
    8.4 Discuss the experiences of settlers on the overland trails to the West (e.g., location of
    the routes; purpose of the journeys; the influence of the terrain, rivers, vegetation, and
    climate; life in the territories at the end of these trails).
    8.5 Describe the continued migration of Mexican settlers into Mexican territories of the
    West and Southwest.
    8.6 Relate how and when California, Texas, Oregon,and other western lands became part
    of the United States, including the significance of the Texas War for Independence and
    the Mexican-American War.
    9.0 Students know the location of the current 50 states and the names of their
    capitals.

    SCIENCE

    Physical Sciences
    1.0 Elements and their combinations account for all the varied types of matter in the
    world. As a basis for understanding this concept:
    1.1 Students know that during chemical reactions the atoms in the reactants rearrange
    to form products with different properties.
    1.2 Students know all matter is made of atoms, which may combine to form molecules.
    1.3 Students know metals have properties in common, such as high electrical and
    thermal conductivity. Some metals, such as aluminum (Al), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni),
    copper (Cu), silver (Ag), and gold (Au), are pure elements; others, such as steel
    and brass, are composed of a combination of elemental metals.
    1.4 Students know that each element is made of one kind of atom and that the elements
    are organized in the periodic table by their chemical properties.
    1.5 Students know scientists have developed instruments that can create discrete
    images of atoms and molecules that show that the atoms and molecules often
    occur in well-ordered arrays.
    1.6 Students know differences in chemical and physical properties of substances are
    used to separate mixtures and identify compounds.
    1.7 Students know properties of solid, liquid, and gaseous substances, such as sugar
    (C 6 H 12 O 6 ), water (H 2 O), helium (He), oxygen (O 2 ), nitrogen (N 2 ), and carbon
    dioxide (CO 2 ).
    1.8 Students know living organisms and most materials are composed of just a few
    elements.
    1.9 Students know the common properties of salts, such as sodium chloride (NaCl).

    Life Sciences
    2.0 Plants and animals have structures for respiration, digestion, waste disposal, and
    transport of materials. As a basis for understanding this concept:
    2.1 Students know many multicellular organisms have specialized structures to sup-port
    the transport of materials.
    2.2 Students know how blood circulates through the heart chambers, lungs, and body
    and how carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and oxygen (O 2 ) are exchanged in the lungs and
    tissues.
    2.3 Students know the sequential steps of digestion and the roles of teeth and the
    mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and colon in the
    function of the digestive system.
    2.4 Students know the role of the kidney in removing cellular waste from blood and
    converting it into urine, which is stored in the bladder.
    2.5 Students know how sugar, water, and minerals are transported in a vascular plant.
    2.6 Students know plants use carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and energy from sunlight to build
    molecules of sugar and release oxygen.
    2.7 Students know plant and animal cells break down sugar to obtain energy, a pro-cess
    resulting in carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and water (respiration).

    Earth Sciences
    3.0 Water on Earth moves between the oceans and land through the processes of evaporation and condensation. As a basis for understanding this concept:
    3.1 Students know most of Earth's water is present as salt water in the oceans, which
    cover most of Earth's surface.
    3.2 Students know when liquid water evaporates, it turns into water vapor in the air
    and can reappear as a liquid when cooled or as a solid if cooled below the freezing
    point of water.
    3.3 Students know water vapor in the air moves from one place to another and can
    form fog or clouds, which are tiny droplets of water or ice, and can fall to Earth
    as rain, hail, sleet, or snow.
    3.4 Students know that the amount of fresh water located in rivers, lakes, under-ground
    sources, and glaciers is limited and that its availability can be extended
    by recycling and decreasing the use of water.
    3.5 Students know the origin of the water used by their local communities.
    4.0 Energy from the Sun heats Earth unevenly, causing air movements that result in
    changing weather patterns. As a basis for understanding this concept:
    4.1 Students know uneven heating of Earth causes air movements (convection cur-rents).
    4.2 Students know the influence that the ocean has on the weather and the role that
    the water cycle plays in weather patterns.
    4.3 Students know the causes and effects of different types of severe weather.
    4.4 Students know how to use weather maps and data to predict local weather and
    know that weather forecasts depend on many variables.
    4.5 Students know that the Earth's atmosphere exerts a pressure that decreases with
    distance above Earth's surface and that at any point it exerts this pressure
    equally in all directions.
    5.0 The solar system consists of planets and other bodies that orbit the Sun in predictable paths. As a basis for understanding this concept:
    5.1 Students know the Sun, an average star, is the central and largest body in the solar
    system and is composed primarily of hydrogen and helium.
    5.2 Students know the solar system includes the planet Earth, the Moon, the Sun,
    eight other planets and their satellites, and smaller objects, such as asteroids and
    comets.
    5.3 Students know the path of a planet around the Sun is due to the gravitational
    attraction between the Sun and the planet.

    Investigation and Experimentation
    6.0 Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations.. As a basis for understanding this concept and addressing the content in the other three strands, students should develop their own questions and perform investigations. Students will:
    6.1 Classify objects (e.g., rocks, plants, leaves) in accordance with appropriate
    criteria.
    6.2 Develop a testable question.
    6.3 Plan and conduct a simple investigation based on a student-developed question
    and write instructions others can follow to carry out the procedure.
    6.4 Identify the dependent and controlled variables in an investigation.
    6.5 Identify a single independent variable in a scientific investigation and explain
    how this variable can be used to collect information to answer a question about
    the results of the experiment.
    6.6 Select appropriate tools (e.g., thermometers, meter sticks, balances, and graduated
    cylinders) and make quantitative observations.
    6.7 Record data by using appropriate graphic representations (including charts,
    graphs, and labeled diagrams) and make inferences based on those data.
    6.8 Draw conclusions from scientific evidence and indicate whether further information
    is needed to support a specific conclusion.
    6.9 Write a report of an investigation that includes conducting tests, collecting data
    or examining evidence, and drawing conclusions.
Last Modified on June 25, 2010