• Fourth Grade Standards
    Lakeside Union School District utilizes content standards developed by the state to guide us in designing specific curricular and instruction strategies that best deliver the content to students. Each standard describes the content students should be able to master by the end of third grade.

    1.0 Word Analysis, Fluency, and Systematic Vocabulary Development
    Students understand the basic features of reading. They select letter patterns and know how to translate them into spoken language by using phonics, syllabication, and word parts. They apply this knowledge to achieve fluent oral and silent reading.
    Word Recognition
    1.1 Read narrative and expository text aloud with grade-appropriate fluency and accuracy
    and with appropriate pacing, intonation, and expression.
    Vocabulary and Concept Development
    1.2 Apply knowledge of word origins, derivations, synonyms, antonyms, and idioms to
    determine the meaning of words and phrases.
    1.3 Use knowledge of root words to determine the meaning of unknown words within a
    1.4 Know common roots and affixes derived from Greek and Latin and use this knowledge to analyze the meaning of complex words (e.g., international).
    1.5 Use a thesaurus to determine related words and concepts.
    1.6 Distinguish and interpret words with multiple meanings.

    2.0 Reading Comprehension
    Students read and understand grade-level-appropriate material. They draw upon a
    variety of comprehension strategies as needed (e.g., generating and responding to
    essential questions, making predictions, comparing information from several sources). The selections in Recommended Readings in Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Eight illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students. In addition to their regular school reading, students read one-half million words annually, including a good representation of grade-level-appropriate narrative and expository text (e.g., classic and contemporary literature, magazines, newspapers, online information).
    Structural Features of Informational Materials
    2.1 Identify structural patterns found in informational text (e.g., compare and contrast, cause and effect, sequential or chronological order, proposition and support) to strengthen
    Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text
    2.2 Use appropriate strategies when reading for different purposes (e.g., full comprehension, location of information, personal enjoyment).
    2.3 Make and confirm predictions about text by using prior knowledge and ideas presented in the text itself, including illustrations, titles, topic sentences, important words, and foreshadowing clues.
    2.4 Evaluate new information and hypotheses by testing them against known information
    and ideas.
    2.5 Compare and contrast information on the same topic after reading several passages or
    2.6 Distinguish between cause and effect and between fact and opinion in expository text.
    2.7 Follow multiple-step instructions in a basic technical manual (e.g., how to use computer commands or video games).

    3.0 Literary Response and Analysis
    Students read and respond to a wide variety of significant works of children's literature. They distinguish between the structural features of the text and the literary terms or elements (e.g., theme, plot, setting, characters). The selections in Recommended Readings in Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Eight illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students.
    Structural Features of Literature
    3.1 Describe the structural differences of various imaginative forms of literature, including fantasies, fables, myths, legends, and fairy tales.
    Narrative Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text
    3.2 Identify the main events of the plot, their causes, and the influence of each event on
    future actions.
    3.3 Use knowledge of the situation and setting and of a character's traits and motivations to determine the causes for that character's actions.
    3.4 Compare and contrast tales from different cultures by tracing the exploits of one character type and develop theories to account for similar tales in diverse cultures (e.g., trickster tales).
    3.5 Define figurative language (e.g., simile, metaphor, hyperbole, personification) and
    identify its use in literary works.

    1.0 Writing Strategies
    Students write clear, coherent sentences and paragraphs that develop a central idea.
    Their writing shows they consider the audience and purpose. Students progress through the stages of the writing process (e.g., prewriting, drafting, revising, editing successive versions).
    Organization and Focus
    1.1 Select a focus, an organizational structure, and a point of view based upon purpose,
    audience, length, and format requirements.
    1.2 Create multiple-paragraph compositions:
    a. Provide an introductory paragraph.
    b. Establish and support a central idea with a topic sentence at or near the beginning of
    the first paragraph.
    c. Include supporting paragraphs with simple facts, details, and explanations.
    d. Conclude with a paragraph that summarizes the points.
    e. Use correct indention.
    1.3 Use traditional structures for conveying information (e.g., chronological order, cause and effect, similarity and difference, and posing and answering a question).
    1.4 Write fluidly and legibly in cursive or joined italic.
    Research and Technology
    1.5 Quote or paraphrase information sources, citing them appropriately.
    1.6 Locate information in reference texts by using organizational features (e.g., prefaces,
    1.7 Use various reference materials (e.g., dictionary, thesaurus, card catalog, encyclopedia, online information) as an aid to writing.
    1.8 Understand the organization of almanacs, newspapers, and periodicals and how to use
    those print materials.
    1.9 Demonstrate basic keyboarding skills and familiarity with computer terminology
    (e.g., cursor, software, memory, disk drive, hard drive).
    Evaluation and Revision
    1.10 Edit and revise selected drafts to improve coherence and progression by adding, deleting, consolidating, and rearranging text.

    2.0 Writing Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics)
    Students write compositions that describe and explain familiar objects, events, and
    experiences. Student writing demonstrates a command of standard American English and the drafting, research, and organizational strategies outlined in Writing Standard 1.0.
    Using the writing strategies of grade four outlined in Writing Standard 1.0, students:
    2.1 Write narratives:
    a. Relate ideas, observations, or recollections of an event or experience.
    b. Provide a context to enable the reader to imagine the world of the event or experience.
    c. Use concrete sensory details.
    d. Provide insight into why the selected event or experience is memorable.
    2.2 Write responses to literature:
    a. Demonstrate an understanding of the literary work.
    b. Support judgments through references to both the text and prior knowledge.
    2.3 Write information reports:
    a. Frame a central question about an issue or situation.
    b. Include facts and details for focus.
    c. Draw from more than one source of information (e.g., speakers, books, newspapers,
    other media sources).
    2.4 Write summaries that contain the main ideas of the reading selection and the most
    significant details.

    The standards for written and oral English language conventions have been placed
    between those for writing and for listening and speaking because these conventions are
    essential to both sets of skills.

    1.0 Written and Oral English Language Conventions
    Students write and speak with a command of standard English conventions appropriate to this grade level.
    Sentence Structure
    1.1 Use simple and compound sentences in writing and speaking.
    1.2 Combine short, related sentences with appositives, participial phrases, adjectives, ad-verbs, and prepositional phrases.
    1.3 Identify and use regular and irregular verbs, adverbs, prepositions, and coordinating
    conjunctions in writing and speaking.
    1.4 Use parentheses, commas in direct quotations, and apostrophes in the possessive case
    of nouns and in contractions.
    1.5 Use underlining, quotation marks, or italics to identify titles of documents.
    1.6 Capitalize names of magazines, newspapers, works of art, musical compositions,
    organizations, and the first word in quotations when appropriate.
    1.7 Spell correctly roots, inflections, suffixes and prefixes, and syllable constructions.

    1.0 Listening and Speaking Strategies
    Students listen critically and respond appropriately to oral communication. They speak in a manner that guides the listener to understand important ideas by using proper phrasing, pitch, and modulation.
    1.1 Ask thoughtful questions and respond to relevant questions with appropriate elaboration in oral settings.
    1.2 Summarize major ideas and supporting evidence presented in spoken messages and
    formal presentations.
    1.3 Identify how language usages (e.g., sayings, expressions) reflect regions and cultures.
    1.4 Give precise directions and instructions.
    Organization and Delivery of Oral Communication
    1.5 Present effective introductions and conclusions that guide and inform the listener's
    understanding of important ideas and evidence.
    1.6 Use traditional structures for conveying information (e.g., cause and effect, similarity and difference, and posing and answering a question).
    1.7 Emphasize points in ways that help the listener or viewer to follow important ideas and concepts.
    1.8 Use details, examples, anecdotes, or experiences to explain or clarify information.
    1.9 Use volume, pitch, phrasing, pace, modulation, and gestures appropriately to enhance
    Analysis and Evaluation of Oral Media Communication
    1.10 Evaluate the role of the media in focusing attention on events and in forming opinions on issues.

    2.0 Speaking Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics)
    Students deliver brief recitations and oral presentations about familiar experiences or interests that are organized around a coherent thesis statement. Student speaking demonstrates a command of standard American English and the organizational and delivery strategies outlined in Listening and Speaking Standard 1.0.
    Using the speaking strategies of grade four outlined in Listening and Speaking Standard
    1.0, students:
    2.1 Make narrative presentations:
    a. Relate ideas, observations, or recollections about an event or experience.
    b. Provide a context that enables the listener to imagine the circumstances of the event or
    c. Provide insight into why the selected event or experience is memorable.
    2.2 Make informational presentations:
    a. Frame a key question.
    b. Include facts and details that help listeners to focus.
    c. Incorporate more than one source of information (e.g., speakers, books, newspapers,
    television or radio reports).
    2.3 Deliver oral summaries of articles and books that contain the main ideas of the event or article and the most significant details.
    2.4 Recite brief poems (i.e., two or three stanzas), soliloquies, or dramatic dialogues, using clear diction, tempo, volume, and phrasing.


    By the end of grade four, students understand large numbers and addition,
    subtraction, multiplication, and division of whole numbers. They describe
    and compare simple fractions and decimals. They understand the properties of,
    and the relationships between, plane geometric figures. They collect, represent,
    and analyze data to answer questions.

    Number Sense
    1.0 Students understand the place value of whole numbers and decimals to two
    decimal places and how whole numbers and decimals relate to simple fractions.
    Students use the concepts of negative numbers:
    1.1 Read and write whole numbers in the millions.
    1.2 Order and compare whole numbers and decimals to two decimal places.
    1.3 Round whole numbers through the millions to the nearest ten, hundred, thousand,
    ten thousand, or hundred thousand.
    1.4 Decide when a rounded solution is called for and explain why such a solution may
    be appropriate.
    1.5 Explain different interpretations of fractions, for example, parts of a whole, parts
    of a set, and division of whole numbers by whole numbers; explain equivalents
    of fractions (see Standard 4.0).
    1.6 Write tenths and hundredths in decimal and fraction notations and know the
    fraction and decimal equivalents for halves and fourths (e.g., 1 /2 = 0.5 or .50;
    7 /4 = 1 3 /4 = 1.75).
    1.7 Write the fraction represented by a drawing of parts of a figure; represent a given
    fraction by using drawings; and relate a fraction to a simple decimal on a number
    1.8 Use concepts of negative numbers (e.g., on a number line, in counting, in tempera-ture, in "owing").
    1.9 Identify on a number line the relative position of positive fractions, positive mixed
    numbers, and positive decimals to two decimal places.
    2.0 Students extend their use and understanding of whole numbers to the
    addition and subtraction of simple decimals:
    2.1 Estimate and compute the sum or difference of whole numbers and positive
    decimals to two places.
    2.2 Round two-place decimals to one decimal or the nearest whole number and judge
    the reasonableness of the rounded answer.
    3.0 Students solve problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication,
    and division of whole numbers and understand the relationships among
    the operations:
    3.1 Demonstrate an understanding of, and the ability to use, standard algorithms
    for the addition and subtraction of multi-digit numbers.
    3.2 Demonstrate an understanding of, and the ability to use, standard algorithms
    for multiplying a multi-digit number by a two-digit number and for dividing a
    multi-digit number by a one-digit number; use relationships between them to
    simplify computations and to check results.
    3.3 Solve problems involving multiplication of multi-digit numbers by two-digit
    3.4 Solve problems involving division of multi-digit numbers by one-digit numbers.
    4.0 Students know how to factor small whole numbers:
    4.1 Understand that many whole numbers break down in different ways
    (e.g., 12 = 4 ´ 3 = 2 ´ 6 = 2 ´ 2 ´ 3).
    4.2 Know that numbers such as 2, 3, 5, 7, and 11 do not have any factors except 1 and
    themselves and that such numbers are called prime numbers.

    Algebra and Functions
    1.0 Students use and interpret variables, mathematical symbols, and properties to
    write and simplify expressions and sentences:
    1.1 Use letters, boxes, or other symbols to stand for any number in simple expressions
    or equations (e.g., demonstrate an understanding and the use of the concept of a
    1.2 Interpret and evaluate mathematical expressions that now use parentheses.
    1.3 Use parentheses to indicate which operation to perform first when writing expressions
    containing more than two terms and different operations.
    1.4 Use and interpret formulas (e.g., area = length ´ width or A = lw) to answer
    questions about quantities and their relationships.
    1.5 Understand that an equation such as y = 3x + 5 is a prescription for determining
    a second number when a first number is given.
    2.0 Students know how to manipulate equations:
    2.1 Know and understand that equals added to equals are equal.
    2.2 Know and understand that equals multiplied by equals are equal.

    Measurement and Geometry
    1.0 Students understand perimeter and area:
    1.1 Measure the area of rectangular shapes by using appropriate units, such as square
    centimeter (cm 2 ), square meter (m 2 ), square kilometer (km 2 ), square inch (in 2 ),
    square yard (yd 2 ), or square mile (mi 2 ).
    1.2 Recognize that rectangles that have the same area can have different perimeters.
    1.3 Understand that rectangles that have the same perimeter can have different areas.
    1.4 Understand and use formulas to solve problems involving perimeters and areas
    of rectangles and squares. Use those formulas to find the areas of more complex
    figures by dividing the figures into basic shapes.
    2.0 Students use two-dimensional coordinate grids to represent points and graph
    lines and simple figures:
    2.1 Draw the points corresponding to linear relationships on graph paper (e.g., draw
    10 points on the graph of the equation y = 3x and connect them by using a straight
    2.2 Understand that the length of a horizontal line segment equals the difference of the
    2.3 Understand that the length of a vertical line segment equals the difference of the y-coordinates.
    3.0 Students demonstrate an understanding of plane and solid geometric objects
    and use this knowledge to show relationships and solve problems:
    3.1 Identify lines that are parallel and perpendicular.
    3.2 Identify the radius and diameter of a circle.
    3.3 Identify congruent figures.
    3.4 Identify figures that have bilateral and rotational symmetry.
    3.5 Know the definitions of a right angle, an acute angle, and an obtuse angle. Under-stand that 90°, 180°, 270°, and 360° are associated, respectively, with 1 /4, 1 /2, 3 /4, and
    full turns.
    3.6 Visualize, describe, and make models of geometric solids (e.g., prisms, pyramids) in
    terms of the number and shape of faces, edges, and vertices; interpret two-dimensional
    representations of three-dimensional objects; and draw patterns (of faces) for
    a solid that, when cut and folded, will make a model of the solid.
    3.7 Know the definitions of different triangles (e.g., equilateral, isosceles, scalene) and
    identify their attributes.
    3.8 Know the definition of different quadrilaterals (e.g., rhombus, square, rectangle,
    parallelogram, trapezoid).

    Statistics, Data Analysis, and Probability
    1.0 Students organize, represent, and interpret numerical and categorical data and
    clearly communicate their findings:
    1.1 Formulate survey questions; systematically collect and represent data on a number
    line; and coordinate graphs, tables, and charts.
    1.2 Identify the mode(s) for sets of categorical data and the mode(s), median, and any
    apparent outliers for numerical data sets.
    1.3 Interpret one- and two-variable data graphs to answer questions about a situation.
    2.0 Students make predictions for simple probability situations:
    2.1 Represent all possible outcomes for a simple probability situation in an organized
    way (e.g., tables, grids, tree diagrams).
    2.2 Express outcomes of experimental probability situations verbally and numerically
    (e.g., 3 out of 4; 3 /4).

    Mathematical Reasoning
    1.0 Students make decisions about how to approach problems:
    1.1 Analyze problems by identifying relationships, distinguishing relevant from
    irrelevant information, sequencing and prioritizing information, and observing
    1.2 Determine when and how to break a problem into simpler parts.
    2.0 Students use strategies, skills, and concepts in finding solutions:
    2.1 Use estimation to verify the reasonableness of calculated results.
    2.2 Apply strategies and results from simpler problems to more complex problems.
    2.3 Use a variety of methods, such as words, numbers, symbols, charts, graphs, tables,
    diagrams, and models, to explain mathematical reasoning.
    2.4 Express the solution clearly and logically by using the appropriate mathematical
    notation and terms and clear language; support solutions with evidence in both
    verbal and symbolic work.
    2.5 Indicate the relative advantages of exact and approximate solutions to problems
    and give answers to a specified degree of accuracy.
    2.6 Make precise calculations and check the validity of the results from the context
    of the problem.
    3.0 Students move beyond a particular problem by generalizing to other
    3.1 Evaluate the reasonableness of the solution in the context of the original situation.
    3.2 Note the method of deriving the solution and demonstrate a conceptual under-standing of the derivation by solving similar problems.
    3.3 Develop generalizations of the results obtained and apply them in other


    California: A Changing State
    Students learn the story of their home state, unique in American history in terms of its
    vast and varied geography, its many waves of immigration beginning with pre-
    Columbian societies, its continuous diversity, economic energy, and rapid growth. In
    addition to the specific treatment of milestones in California history, students examine
    the state in the context of the rest of the nation, with an emphasis on the U.S. Constitu-
    tion and the relationship between state and federal government.
    1.0 Students demonstrate an understanding of the physical and human geographic
    features that define places and regions in California.
    1.1 Explain and use the coordinate grid system of latitude and longitude to determine the
    absolute locations of places in California and on Earth.
    1.2 Distinguish between the North and South Poles; the equator and the prime meridian;
    the tropics; and the hemispheres, using coordinates to plot locations.
    1.3 Identify the state capital and describe the various regions of California, including how
    their characteristics and physical environments (e.g., water, landforms, vegetation,
    climate) affect human activity.
    1.4 Identify the locations of the Pacific Ocean, rivers, valleys, and mountain passes and
    explain their effects on the growth of towns.
    1.5 Use maps, charts, and pictures to describe how communities in California vary in land use, vegetation, wildlife, climate, population density, architecture, services, and transportation.
    2.0 Students describe the social, political, cultural, and economic life and interactions among people of California from the pre-Columbian societies to the Spanish mission and Mexican rancho periods.
    2.1 Discuss the major nations of California Indians, including their geographic distribution, economic activities, legends, and religious beliefs; and describe how they depended on, adapted to, and modified the physical environment by cultivation of land and use of sea resources.
    2.2 Identify the early land and sea routes to, and European settlements in, California with a focus on the exploration of the North Pacific (e.g., by Captain James Cook, Vitus Bering, Juan Cabrillo), noting especially the importance of mountains, deserts, ocean currents, and wind patterns.
    2.3 Describe the Spanish exploration and colonization of California, including the relationships among soldiers, missionaries, and Indians (e.g., Juan Crespi, Junipero Serra, Gaspar de Portola).
    2.4 Describe the mapping of, geographic basis of, and economic factors in the placement and function of the Spanish missions; and understand how the mission system expanded the influence of Spain and Catholicism throughout New Spain and Latin America.
    2.5 Describe the daily lives of the people, native and nonnative, who occupied the presidios, missions, ranchos, and pueblos.
    2.6 Discuss the role of the Franciscans in changing the economy of California from a hunter-gatherer economy to an agricultural economy.
    2.7 Describe the effects of the Mexican War for Independence on Alta California, including its effects on the territorial boundaries of North America.
    2.8 Discuss the period of Mexican rule in California and its attributes, including land grants, secularization of the missions, and the rise of the rancho economy.
    3.0 Students explain the economic, social, and political life in California from the
    establishment of the Bear Flag Republic through the Mexican-American War, the
    Gold Rush, and the granting of statehood.
    3.1 Identify the locations of Mexican settlements in California and those of other settle-
    ments, including Fort Ross and Sutter's Fort.
    3.2 Compare how and why people traveled to California and the routes they traveled
    (e.g., James Beckwourth, John Bidwell, John C. Fremont, Pio Pico).
    3.3 Analyze the effects of the Gold Rush on settlements, daily life, politics, and the physical environment (e.g., using biographies of John Sutter, Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo, Louise Clapp).
    3.4 Study the lives of women who helped build early California (e.g., Biddy Mason).
    3.5 Discuss how California became a state and how its new government differed from
    those during the Spanish and Mexican periods.
    4.0 Students explain how California became an agricultural and industrial power,
    tracing the transformation of the California economy and its political and cul-
    tural development since the 1850s.
    4.1 Understand the story and lasting influence of the Pony Express, Overland Mail Ser-
    vice, Western Union, and the building of the transcontinental railroad, including the
    contributions of Chinese workers to its construction.
    4.2 Explain how the Gold Rush transformed the economy of California, including the
    types of products produced and consumed, changes in towns (e.g., Sacramento, San
    Francisco), and economic conflicts between diverse groups of people.
    4.3 Discuss immigration and migration to California between 1850 and 1900, including the diverse composition of those who came; the countries of origin and their relative
    locations; and conflicts and accords among the diverse groups (e.g., the 1882 Chinese
    Exclusion Act).
    4.4 Describe rapid American immigration, internal migration, settlement, and the growth
    of towns and cities (e.g., Los Angeles).
    4.5 Discuss the effects of the Great Depression, the Dust Bowl, and World War II on
    4.6 Describe the development and locations of new industries since the turn of the cen-
    tury, such as the aerospace industry, electronics industry, large-scale commercial
    agriculture and irrigation projects, the oil and automobile industries, communications
    and defense industries, and important trade links with the Pacific Basin.
    4.7 Trace the evolution of California's water system into a network of dams, aqueducts,
    and reservoirs.
    4.8 Describe the history and development of California's public education system, including universities and community colleges.
    4.9 Analyze the impact of twentieth-century Californians on the nation's artistic and
    cultural development, including the rise of the entertainment industry (e.g., Louis B.
    Meyer, Walt Disney, John Steinbeck, Ansel Adams, Dorothea Lange, John Wayne).
    5.0 Students understand the structures, functions, and powers of the local, state,
    and federal governments as described in the U.S. Constitution.
    5.1 Discuss what the U.S. Constitution is and why it is important (i.e., a written document
    that defines the structure and purpose of the U.S. government and describes the shared
    powers of federal, state, and local governments).
    5.2 Understand the purpose of the California Constitution, its key principles, and its relationship to the U.S. Constitution.
    5.3 Describe the similarities (e.g., written documents, rule of law, consent of the governed, three separate branches) and differences (e.g., scope of jurisdiction, limits on government powers, use of the military) among federal, state, and local governments.
    5.4 Explain the structures and functions of state governments, including the roles and re-
    sponsibilities of their elected officials.
    5.5 Describe the components of California's governance structure (e.g., cities and towns,
    Indian rancherias and reservations, counties, school districts).

    Physical Sciences
    1.0 Electricity and magnetism are related effects that have many useful applications in everyday life. As a basis for understanding this concept:
    1.1 Students know how to design and build simple series and parallel circuits by
    using components such as wires, batteries, and bulbs.
    1.2 Students know how to build a simple compass and use it to detect magnetic effects,
    including Earth's magnetic field.
    1.3 Students know electric currents produce magnetic fields and know how to build a
    simple electromagnet.
    1.4 Students know the role of electromagnets in the construction of electric motors,
    electric generators, and simple devices, such as doorbells and earphones.
    1.5 Students know electrically charged objects attract or repel each other.
    1.6 Students know that magnets have two poles (north and south) and that like poles
    repel each other while unlike poles attract each other.
    1.7 Students know electrical energy can be converted to heat, light, and motion.

    Life Sciences
    2.0 All organisms need energy and matter to live and grow. As a basis for understanding this concept:
    2.1 Students know plants are the primary source of matter and energy entering most
    food chains.
    2.2 Students know producers and consumers (herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, and
    decomposers) are related in food chains and food webs and may compete with
    each other for resources in an ecosystem.
    2.3 Students know decomposers, including many fungi, insects, and microorganisms,
    recycle matter from dead plants and animals.
    3.0 Living organisms depend on one another and on their environment for survival. As a basis for understanding this concept:
    3.1 Students know ecosystems can be characterized by their living and nonliving
    3.2 Students know that in any particular environment, some kinds of plants and
    animals survive well, some survive less well, and some cannot survive at all.
    3.3 Students know many plants depend on animals for pollination and seed dispersal,
    and animals depend on plants for food and shelter.
    3.4 Students know that most microorganisms do not cause disease and that many are

    Earth Sciences
    4.0 The properties of rocks and minerals reflect the processes that formed them. As a basis for understanding this concept:
    4.1 Students know how to differentiate among igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic
    rocks by referring to their properties and methods of formation (the rock
    4.2 Students know how to identify common rock-forming minerals (including quartz,
    calcite, feldspar, mica, and hornblende) and ore minerals by using a table of
    diagnostic properties.
    5.0 Waves, wind, water, and ice shape and reshape Earth's land surface. As a basis for understanding this concept:
    5.1 Students know some changes in the earth are due to slow processes, such as erosion,
    and some changes are due to rapid processes, such as landslides, volcanic
    eruptions, and earthquakes.
    5.2 Students know natural processes, including freezing and thawing and the growth
    of roots, cause rocks to break down into smaller pieces.
    5.3 Students know moving water erodes landforms, reshaping the land by taking it
    away from some places and depositing it as pebbles, sand, silt, and mud in other
    places (weathering, transport, and deposition).

    Investigation and Experimentation
    6.0 Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations. As a basis for understanding this concept and addressing the content in the other three strands, students should develop their own questions and perform investigations. Students will:
    6.1 Differentiate observation from inference (interpretation) and know scientists'
    explanations come partly from what they observe and partly from how
    they interpret their observations.
    6.2 Measure and estimate the weight, length, or volume of objects.
    6.3 Formulate and justify predictions based on cause-and-effect relationships.
    6.4 Conduct multiple trials to test a prediction and draw conclusions about the
    relationships between predictions and results.
    6.5 Construct and interpret graphs from measurements.
    6.6 Follow a set of written instructions for a scientific investigation.
Last Modified on June 25, 2010